On October 1, 2018, the Trump Administration announced a new multilateral free trade agreement with Mexico and Canada, set to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In some respects, the Intellectual Property (IP) Chapter in the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) would strengthen the protections and enforcement of IP rights relative to NAFTA's IP Chapter, and this is an improvement. Notably, the USMCA would implement provisions and enforcement mechanisms that should diminish the facilitation of pirated and counterfeit goods in the three member countries.
However, the proposed agreement also carries forward an outdated "notice-and-takedown" provision that does not properly protect the interests of creators and consumers.
FSF scholars recently have advocated for the modernization of NAFTA's IP Chapter. (See here and here.) And the USMCA would improve some important measures related to the protection of the rights of trademark and copyright holders. Here are some of the key provisions in the USMCA that would strengthen IP rights protections:
- Requires a minimum copyright term of life of the author plus 70 years, and for those works with a copyright term that is not based on the life of a person, a minimum of 75 years after first authorized publication. Canada currently has terms of life of the author plus 50 years and 70 years, respectively.
- Requires strong standards against the circumvention of technological protection measures that often protect works such as digital music, movies, and books.
- Enhances provisions for protecting trademarks, including well-known marks, to help companies that have invested effort and resources into establishing goodwill for their brands.
- Provides important procedural safeguards for recognition of new geographical indications (GIs), including strong standards for protection against issuances of GIs that would prevent United States producers from using common names, as well as establishes a mechanism for consultation between the member countries on future GIs pursuant to international agreements.
Additionally, the proposed agreement would require some enforcement mechanisms to deter the facilitation of pirated and counterfeit goods. Specifically, IP enforcement procedures must be available for the digital environment for copyright and trademark. The USMCA also includes procedures and penalties for unauthorized "camcording" of movies, which is a significant source of pirated movies online.
From the United States' perspective, about $1.3 trillion in annual economic activity is attributable to trade that crosses the U.S. borders with Canada and Mexico. Efforts to stop online piracy and the sale of counterfeit goods will encourage creators and entrepreneurs to develop new content and invest in new brands because they will have a greater ability to earn a return on their labor and resources.
However, there is one area where the USMCA needs work. The USMCA includes outdated safe harbor provisions very similar to the provisions adopted in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). In particular, the USMCA carries forward without strengthening a "notice-and-takedown" provision that does not adequately protect creators and consumers.
As Free State Foundation President Randolph May and Senior Fellow Seth Cooper stated in a February 2018 Perspectives from FSF Scholars, the notice-and-takedown provision was adopted twenty years ago and does not reflect today's digital marketplace for copyrighted works:
"[Under the notice-and-takedown provision], copyright holders are entitled to give notice to an online service provider when infringing content is posted on its network or website. A provider receives immunity if it 'responds expeditiously to remove, or disable access to, the material that is claimed to be infringing.'"
"In the late 1990s there were far fewer Internet users and far fewer online platforms for user posting of content. Today, user-upload websites such as YouTube, Vevo, Dailymotion, and SoundCloud make massive amounts of music and video content available. Regrettably, users of those websites and others post far too much infringing content. For example, between 2011 and 2015, the sound recording industry issued over 175 million takedown notices to various online providers."
"As a result of mass online infringement and the burdensome nature of the notice and takedown process, copyright owners lose revenues that they would receive otherwise from legitimate sales of copies to consumers."
Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA takes some important steps to modernize and strengthen the protection and enforcement of IP rights to account for a burgeoning digital marketplace. But it's not perfect. Congress and the Office of the United States Trade Representative still need to find a way, in the context of negotiating trade agreements, to revise the "notice-and-takedown" regime in a way that adequately protects creators and consumers.